Preferred font

Calibri size 11, single spaced, endnotes size 9


Abbreviations and contractions

  • Full points should be used in abbreviations.








            et al.

  • Use two-letter abbreviations for US states in references and bibliography (i.e. Cambridge, MA not Cambridge Mass.).
  • No points after Mr or Dr
  • No full points in upper-case abbreviations such as ‘US’ or ‘UK’ .
  • People’s initials have a point if two of them, and are not spaced, e.g. A.A. Milne. Patients etc. don’t have a point after one initial, e.g. Mr M said that….
  • Abbreviated units of measurement do not have full points and do not take a final ‘s’ in the plural, e.g. km
  • Those ending with the same letter as the original word do not take a full stop, for example Mr (not Mr.)/Ltd/1st/eds/edn/vols/cwt/Dr/Mrs and so on.



  • Use full caps for acronyms, e.g. NATO, USA, TV.
  • Use a capital for ‘Chapter’ for internal cross references.
  • Use to distinguish specific from general, for example ‘He is a professor at Edinburgh University ...’ but ‘He is Professor of Literature at ...’.
  • Always capitalise initials of key words in English-language titles of books (titles are italicised); see References.
  • Symposia etc, use quotation marks and lower case: ‘Psychoanalysis in the year 2012’
  • Upper case for Congress, Conference
  • Upper case for Panel, Plenary



  • 26th March 2015
  • 1930s (not 1930’s)
  • in the twentieth century (but twentieth-century literature)
  • 1899–1901, 1900–1, 1900–10, 1910–18, 1923–4, 1989–91


Definite article

Normally use lower-case ‘t’ before names of associations, companies and other bodies but, for newspapers and periodicals, follow the use of ‘the’ in the title. Use the following: the Daily Telegraph, the Daily Express, The Times, The Guardian, The Independent, The Scotsman, The Economist.


Drama references

‘Act III, scene ii, line 297’ should be written as ‘III, ii, 297’.



Show ellipses by three evenly spaced dots on the same line, preceded by a character space and followed by a character space or by a closing quotation mark (or a closing parenthesis). Avoid following ellipses with a full stop or a comma.

I was … going … to



Avoid underlining and use of bold for emphasis. Italics are better


En/em rules (an n rule is the length of an ‘n’; an em rule is the length of an ‘m’, so longer)

  • Unspaced en rules are used between dates (14-17 July) and wherever the dash can be interpreted as ‘to’ (pp.45-46)
  • Spaced em rules are used for parenthetical dashes or asides in the text, e,g, – authorial remarks and the like – would be used as ….


End notes vs footnotes

Use end notes, not footnotes if at all possible, especially not for the bibliography. If a bibliography is given in footnotes, author to be asked to rewrite.



Headings in text are bold:

First heading has caps for important words

2nd heading is lower case

3rd heading is in italics



Hyphenation is normally used adjectivally, e.g. ‘nineteenth-century building’ but ‘a building from the nineteenth century’.






Italics should be used for foreign words except

 • when part of a foreign-language quotation

 • when the word has been assimilated into the English language.

Italics should also be used for titles of newspapers, journals, plays, books, films, works of art, names of ships, but not for the names of institutions or associations.

Surrounding punctuation should not be italicised.

Dreams are given in italics. 

Quotations are NOT in italics.



  • Spell out numbers up to but not including 10 for technical texts. Spell out words up to but not including 100 for more literary texts, and use commas between thousands, e.g. 6,000, 10,000 not 6 000, 10 000.


Paragraph indentation

Do not indent the first paragraph of a section but do indent all others. Don’t leave spaces between paragraphs.


Quotation marks

  • Single quotation marks throughout, with double quotes for an inner quote: ‘xxxx “yyyy” xxxxx’
  • Displayed quotations have no quotation marks: any quotes within a displayed quote will have single quotation marks.



  • Quotations of more than 40 words should be displayed. Indent them or type as a separate paragraph with a line space above and below. The paragraph after should not be indented.
  • Introductory ellipses should be avoided but concluding ellipses are acceptable.
  • Original spellings should be used. Add [sic] if necessary.
  • Capitalising quotations: Please capitalise quotations on an ad hoc basis according to sense. If a quotation starts a new sentence, then use a capital. If it continues as part of a sentence, use lower case.
  • Sources should be indicated outside full stops (Winnicott, 1947, p. 42). The source itself should then be given in a numbered note at the end of the chapter
  • Alternatively, if the source of the quote is given at the end of the quote under the author–date system, the positioning of the source details should be immediately after the quote. If the quote is in verse form, the source details should be on the line below the quote, ranged right.



Given within the text, in footnotes, and at end of articles.

Within the text

(Klein, 1952, p. 110) or We have here what Freud described as the ‘false connections’ of the Studies on Hysteria (1895);


Books are given in text as italics; papers are ordinary text within quotation marks

(Suttie & Suttie, 1932, pp. 212-13; Kuhn, 1970 [1962], p. 197, n.3)

(Stephenson, 1986, 1987a, 1987b)

(Zangwill et al., 1972, pp. xx–xxi, my emphasis)

(Freud, cited in Cheshire, 1996, pp. 1131, 1130)


If you have used a more recent version of a work, if quoting in the text, put the date of the original work, e.g. (Kafka, 1931), unless you are including page numbers, in which case name of author, date of edition you used, then in [ ] put the date of original work (Kafka, 1987 [1931], p. 31). Then at the end of the article, put the author’s name, then the date of the original edition, publisher details, then the date of the edition you used. KAKFA, F. (1931), Metamorphosis. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1987.


References to Freud essays within the text: in quotation marks with no capitalisation after first word, e.g. ‘The psychogenesis of a case of homosexuality in a woman’. For books and major works, however, use capitals and italics, e.g. The Interpretation of Dreams


In footnotes [should not apply, as we try to use endnotes instead]

If reference is given at the end of article, use surname and year (Freud, 1919). If it isn’t, give initials.

For example:

See Richards (2008, pp. 113–70); Gould (1977, pp. 76–85).

See D.W. Winnicott (1919): Childhood Trauma.


End of articles

Author names should be in upper case.


Use dashes when an author is listed more than once.


BION, W.R. (1970): Attention and Interpretation. London: Tavistock Books.

-- (1963): Elements of Psycho-Analysis. London: Tavistock Books.

When the same author has several publications in the same year, use a, b, etc to distinguish them, e.g. (FREUD, 1919a, 1919b, 1919c)


It’s ok to use abbreviations for commonly-cited journals, e.g. Int. J. Psychoanal., 44: 470-480.

Psychoanal. Q., 64: 68-73.



Important/major papers or books are given in italics and upper case at beginning of important words. Essays etc. in lower case and quotation marks in the text (see Appendix).


Sole-authored book:

BION, W.R. (1970): Attention and Interpretation. London: Tavistock Books.

Co-authored book:

Laplanche, J. & Pontalis, J.-B. (1973): The Language of Psycho-Analysis. London: Hogarth Press.

Chapter in author’s own collection: Winnicott, D.W. (1954): Withdrawal and regression. In D.W. Winnicott, Through Paediatrics to Psychoanalysis. New York: Basic Books, 1975, pp. 255–61.


Citing a more recent version of an older text

Use the older, original date of publication and put the date of the newer edition at the end.

Winnicott, D.W. (1975): Through Paediatrics to Psychoanalysis. London: Karnac, 1999, pp. 35-157.


Chapter in Freud S.E.: Freud, S. (1933): Inhibitions, symptoms and anxiety. S.E. 22, pp. 225–30, London: Hogarth Press.

Note: always use Arabic numerals for volume numbers of S.E.; always use italics for S.E. but not the volume number (e.g. S.E. 22).


Chapter in edited collection: Vikar, G. (1996): The Budapest School of psychoanalysis. In P.L. Rudnytsky, A. Bokay & P. Giampieri-Deutsch (eds), Ferenczi’s Turn in Psychoanalysis. New York: New York University Press.

Journal article: Samson, A. (1988): Science, metaphor and meaning in The Interpretation of Dreams.British Journal of Psychotherapy 14(3): 327–36.

Internet source: Carpenter, A. (2001): Schoenberg’s Erwatung and Freudian case histories: A preliminary investigation. Discourses in Music 3(2). Available at: [Accessed 7 January 2010].


Page numbers

If a chapter in a book, use pp. 255–61

If an article in a journal, do not use pp.


References to non-print media

Films and CDs should be referenced as follows:

[title in italic], [media], [director/ composer as appropriate]. [Place]: [producer], [date]

e.g. Macbeth, film, directed by Orson Welles. USA: Republic Pictures, 1948.


Scripture references

Use Arabic numerals, dividing chapter and verse by a colon followed by a space, e.g.: 2 Cor. 12: 4.


References to songs

Upper case for titles, and use quotation marks, e.g. The Smiths, ‘Girlfriend in a Coma’



Figures and abbreviated measurements should be closed up, for example: 20km, not 20 km. Please note that there should be one character space between sentences and not two.



English spelling –ise, –our
















Commonly used words

a priori



déjà vu

the dream work

ego (lower case)

ego ideal

et al.






insofar as

internet (lower case)

the long term


mid 1960s




naive, naivety


Oedipus complex

obsessive-compulsive disorder (not OCD)




psychohistory, psychotherapeutic, etc.

re-emerge, re-examine, etc.


reinforce, reinsert, etc.

re-read, re-release, etc.


the self, not Self


sociocultural, sociopolitical, etc.




the West

western values

World War I, World War II



Given the end of articles, justified left.

For example:

Translated from the French by Andrew Weller, Paris



If it’s a discussion of someone else’s paper, put name of author plus title as main title

Discussion of Ronald Britton’s Paper ‘The Oedipus Situation’

For running heads: Discussion of Ronald Britton’s Paper

If second author has put in a title, put that at the beginning.


Web addresses

Do not underline these, they should appear in the form: (no terminal punctuation either, as that could confuse someone typing it into their computer).